NetWitness UEBA focuses on providing advanced detection capabilities to guard enterprises from insider threats. These could either be compromised trusted users or network entity within a network, or alternatively, an external attacker malicious taking advantage of credentials acquired by using advanced account takeover techniques.
Identity theft typically begins with the theft of credentials, which are then used to obtain unauthorized access to resources and to gain control over the network. Attackers may also exploit compromised non-admin users to obtain access to resources for which they have administrative rights, and then escalate those privileges.
NetWitness UEBA helps you separate possibly malicious activity from the otherwise abnormal, but not risky, user or network entity actions.
Use Case for Users
An attacker who uses stolen credentials may trigger suspicious network events while accessing resources. Detecting illicit credential use is possible, but requires that you separate attacker activity from the high volume of legitimate events. The following use cases define certain risk types, and the corresponding system capabilities used for their detection. You can review the use cases, represented by their alert type and description, to gain an initial understanding of the related risky behavior of each use case. Using NetWitness UEBA, you can then drill down into the indicators that reflect the possibly risky user activities to learn more. For more information about NetWitness UEBA-supported indicators, see Indicators for Users. When anomalies are detected, they are compared to the baseline and compiled into hourly alerts. For more information on types of alerts for Users, see Alert Types for a User .
Use Case for Network Entities
UEBA can detect malicious traffic masked within a legitimate HTTPS session. Based on this alert analysis, the analyst can drill down to the indicators and determine if the activity was normal or not. For more information about NetWitness UEBA-supported entity indicators, see Indicators for Network Entities. For example, the analyst can detect if there was any abnormal number of bytes sent to a port or a domain. If this type of events or a combination of such events are detected an alert is triggered. For more information on types of alerts for network entity, see Alert Types for Network Entities.
|Mass Changes to Groups||An abnormal number of changes are made to groups. Investigate which elements are changed, and decide if the changes were legitimate or possibly the result of risky or malicious behavior. This activity is associated with the Multiple Group Membership Changes indicator.|
|Multiple Failed Logons||In traditional password cracking attempts, the attacker tries to obtain a password through guesswork or by employing other low-tech methods to gain initial access. The attacker risks getting caught or being locked out by explicitly attempting to authenticate; but with some prior knowledge of the victim’s password history, may be able to successfully authenticate. Look for additional abnormal indications that the account owner is not the one attempting to access this account. This activity is usually associated with the Multiple Failed Authentications indicator.|
|User Logon to Abnormal Host||Attackers often need to reacquire credentials and perform other sensitive activities, like using remote access. Tracing the access chain backwards may lead to the discovery of other computers involved in possibly risky activity. If an attacker’s presence is limited to a single compromised host or to many compromised hosts, that activity can be associated with the Abnormal Host indicator.|
|Data Exfiltration||Data exfiltration is the unauthorized copying, transfer, or retrieval of data from a computer or server. Data exfiltration is a malicious activity performed through various techniques, typically by cyber criminals over the Internet or other network. This activity can be associated with the Excessive Number of File Rename Events, Excessive Number of Files Moved from File System, and Excessive Number of Files Moved to File System indicators.|
|Mass File Rename||Ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts desktop and system files, making them inaccessible. Some ransom ware, for example, Locky, encrypts and renames files as part of their initial execution. Use this indication of mass-file-renaming to determine if your file system is infected with ransomware. This activity can be associated with the Multiple File Rename Events indicator.|
|Snooping User||Snooping is unauthorized access to another person's or company's data. Snooping can be as simple as the casual observance of an e-mail on others computer, or watching what someone else is typing. More sophisticated snooping uses software programs to remotely monitor activity on a computer or network device. This activity can be associated with the Multiple File Access Events, Multiple Failed File Access Events, Multiple File Open Events, and Multiple Folder Open Events indicators.|
|Multiple Logons by User||All authentication activity, malicious or not, appears as normal logons. Therefore, administrators should monitor unexpected authorized activity. The key is that attackers use these stolen credentials for unauthorized access, which may provide an opportunity for detection. When an account is used for unusual activities, for example, authenticating an unusual amount of times, the account may have been compromised. This activity can be associated with the Multiple Successful Authentications indicator.|
|User Logged into Multiple Hosts||Attackers typically need to reacquire credentials periodically. This is because their key chain of stolen credentials naturally degrades over time, due to password changes and resets. Therefore, attackers frequently maintain a foothold in the compromised organization by installing backdoors and maintaining credentials from many computers in the environment. This activity can be associated with the Logged onto Multiple Hosts indicator.|
|Mass Permission Changes||Some credential theft techniques, for example, Pass-the-Hash, use an iterative, two-stage process. First, an attacker obtains elevated read-write permission to privileged areas of volatile memory and file systems, which are typically accessible only to system-level processes on at least one computer. Second, the attacker attempts to increase access to other computers on the network. Investigate if abnormal permission changes have taken place on the file systems to ensure that they were not compromised by an attacker. This activity can be associated with the Multiple File Access Permission Changes, Multiple Failed File Access Permission Changes, and Abnormal File Access Permission Change indicators.|
|Abnormal Active Directory (AD) Changes||If an attacker gains highly-privileged access to an Active Directory domain or domain controller, that access can be leveraged to access, control, or even destroy the entire forest. If a single domain controller is compromised and an attacker modifies the AD database, those modifications replicate to every other domain controller in the domain, and depending on the partition in which the modifications are made, the forest as well. Investigate abnormal changes conducted by admins and non-admins in AD to determine if they represent a possible true compromise to the domain. This activity can be associated with the Abnormal Active Directory Change, Multiple Account Management Changes, Multiple User Account Management Changes, and Multiple Failed Account Management Changes indicators.|
|Sensitive User Status Changes||A domain or enterprise administrator account has the default ability to exercise control over all resources in a domain, regardless of whether it operates with malicious or benign intent. This control includes the ability to create and change accounts; read, write, or delete data; install or alter applications; and erase operating systems. Some of these activities trigger organically as part of the account’s natural life cycle. Investigate these security sensitive user account changes, and determine if it is compromised. This activity can be associated with the User Account Enabled, User Account Disabled, User Account Unlocked, User Account Type Changed, User Account Locked, User Password Never Expires Option Changed, User Password Changed by Non-Owner, and User Password Change indicators.|
|Abnormal File Access||Monitor for abnormal file access to prevent improper access to confidential files and theft of sensitive data. By selectively monitoring file views, modifications and deletions, you can detect possibly unauthorized changes to sensitive files, whether caused by an attack or a change management error. This activity can be associated with the Abnormal File Access Event and Multiple File Delete Events indicators.|
|Non-Standard Hours||All authentication activity, malicious or not, appears as normal logons. Therefore, administrators should monitor unexpected authorized activity. The key is that attackers use these stolen credentials for unauthorized access, which may provide an opportunity for detection. When an account is being used for unusual activities, for example, authenticating an unusual number of times, the account may have been compromised. Use the indication of an abnormal activity time to determine if the account is taken over by an external actor. This activity can be associated with the Abnormal File Access Time, Abnormal VPN Logon Time Abnormal Azure AD Logon Time, Abnormal Active Directory Change Time, and Abnormal Logon Time indicators.|
Credential dumping is the process of obtaining account login and password information, in the form of a hash or a clear text password, from the operating system and software. Credentials can then be used to perform lateral movement and access restricted information. This activity can be associated with the Abnormal Process Created a Remote Thread in LSASS indicator.
|Discovery & Reconnaissance||Discovery consists of techniques that allow the adversary to gain knowledge about the system and internal network. When attackers gain access to a new system, they must orient themselves to what they now have control of and what benefits operating from that system give to their current objective or overall goals during the intrusion. The operating system provides many native tools that aid in this post-compromise information-gathering phase. This activity can be associated with the Abnormal Reconnaissance Tool Execute , Multiple Distinct Reconnaissance Tools Executed, Multiple Reconnaissance Tool Activities Executed and User Executed a Reconnaissance Tool Multiple Times indicators.|
|PowerShell & Scripting||PowerShell is a powerful interactive command-line interface and scripting environment included in the Windows operating system. Attackers can use PowerShell to perform a number of actions, including discovery of information and execution of code. Examples include the Start-Process cmdlet which can be used to run an executable and the Invoke-Command cmdlet which runs a command locally or on a remote computer. This activity can be associated with the User Ran an Abnormal Process to Execute a Scripting Tool, Abnormal Process Executed a Scripting Tool, Scripting Tool Triggered an Abnormal Application, User Ran a Scripting Tool that Triggered an Abnormal Application, User Ran a Scripting Tool to Open an Abnormal Process and Scripting Tool Opened an Abnormal Process indicators.|
|Registry Run Keys & Start Folder||Adding an entry to the "run keys" in the Registry or startup folder will cause the program referenced to be executed when a user logs in. The program will be executed under the context of the user and will have the account's associated permissions level. Attackers can use these configuration locations to execute malware, such as remote access tools, to maintain persistence through system reboots. Attackers may also use Masquerading to make the Registry entries look as if they are associated with legitimate programs.|
Adding an entry to the "run keys" in the Registry or startup folder will cause the program referenced to be executed when a user logs in. These programs will be executed under the context of the user and will have the account's associated permissions level. This activity can be associated with the Abnormal Process Modified a Registry Key Group indicator.
|Multiple Failed Authentications - External Access||As organizations increase their reliance on external authentication infrastructures, attackers may attempt to leverage these infrastructures to their advantage. Brute force techniques as well as more traditional password cracking methods like guesswork can be utilized to gain initial access. These activities can be associated with the Multiple Failed Azure AD Authentications and Multiple Failed VPN Authentications indicators.|
As organizations increase their reliance on external authentication infrastructures, attackers may attempt to leverage these infrastructures to their advantage. When devices or accounts are compromised as well as when credentials are wrongly shared, attackers may utilize them to gain initial access from an abnormal location. These activities can be associated with the Abnormal Azure AD Logon Country and Abnormal VPN Logon Country indicators.
|Snooping User - Cloud Service Account||Snooping is unauthorized access to company data or data belonging to another person. Snooping can be as simple as the casual observance of an email on another person's computer. More sophisticated snooping uses software programs to remotely monitor activity on a computer or a cloud service account. This activity can be associated with the Azure AD - Logon Attempts to Multiple Applications indicator.|
Abnormal Remote Application
Attackers may leverage compromised account details or devices to access remote applications that genuine end users do not frequently access to collect and even exfiltrate sensitive information. This activity can be associated with the Azure AD - Abnormal Application indicator.
|Process Injection||Process injection is a method of executing arbitrary code in the address space of a separate live process. Running code in the context of another process may allow access to the process's memory, system/network resources, and possibly elevated privileges. Execution via process injection may also evade detection from security products since the execution is masked under a legitimate process. This activity can be associated with the Abnormal Process Created a Remote Thread in a Windows Process indicator.|
|Phishing||Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by disguising oneself as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. This activity can be associated with Abnormal Country for SSL Subject, and Abnormal SSL Subject for JA3. indicators.|
|Data Exfiltration||Data exfiltration is the unauthorized copying, transfer, or retrieval of data from a computer or server. Data Exfiltration is a malicious activity performed through various techniques, typically by cyber criminals over the Internet or other network. This activity can be associated with Abnormal Traffic Volume Sent to Domain and Abnormal Traffic Volume Sent from JA3 indicators.|
Command & Control (C&C)
Command and control infrastructure can be leveraged by attackers as a communication channel between a compromised asset within the impacted network and an attacker-controlled server. Attackers may attempt to mask this malicious communication within regular network traffic; consequently, this activity can be associated with numerous network indicators such as Abnormal Destination Port for JA3 and High Number of IPs Contact a New SSL Subject.
Access NetWitness UEBA
To access NetWitness UEBA, log in to NetWitness Platform and do one of the following:
You can choose a dark or a light theme for the view. For more information, see the "Choose the Appearance of NetWitness Platform" topic in the RSA NetWitness Getting Started Guide.
You must also ensure that you have NetWitness UEBA licensing configured. For information about NetWitness UEBA licensing, see the "User and Entity Behavior Analytics License" topic in the Licensing Management Guide.